I got a problem with Adobe Acrobat 8.1.3 Professional on Windows Vista SP1.
I opened a document and after a few seconds looking at it, it disappeared.
I tried a repair and then it got even worse. It was not even related to that document.
Only a few seconds after I start Acrobat it crashes with no error message whatsoever. Acrobat just quits and exits silently.
I tried to run Acrobat as Administrator and then it worked just fine.
Then I though about using the general trick to delete everything in the TEMP folder. That solved my problem and hopefully yours if you run into this.
This also solved a problem with the Adobe PDF writer that I started to have recently.